Post a Comment. D1: Pharmaceutical drugs. Drug or medicine is a substance that does one or more of the following:.
The active ingredients in drugs and medicines can be isolated from a plants and animals or synthesized artificially. The research and development of new medicines is a long and costly process. First the drug must be isolated or synthetized. The drug is tested on animals. LD 50 and ED 50 are determined. The drug moves to Clinical Trials. Human Pharmacology — testing on small group of healthy volunteers for safety.
Confirmatory Stage — large-scale testing of drug. A local drug regulatory agency approves a medicine and decides whether it will be. OTC over the counter or on prescription only. LD 50 is a l ethal d ose necessary to kill 50 percent of animal population.
Therapeutic determines a safety of drug. If the therapeutic index of a drug is 10, a person would have to intake ten times more drug than the effective dose for the effects to be lethal.Olx jcb mp
According to the therapeutic index, the researchers decide whether a dosage must be controlled. If TI is low, the dosage must be closely controlled. During testing, half of the patients receive a real drug and the other half similar-looking placebo. This determined whether the drug has a real effect or the pill only fooled body into healing. Thalidomide alleviates morning sickness during pregnancy.Introduction The idea for this investigation came about when we were learning about trends in physical properties in the homologous series.
For example, the permanent dipole due to the carbonyl group in aldehydes and ketones results in stronger dipole-dipole forces and so a higher boiling or melting point. The OH group in alcohols will cause an even higher boiling and melting temperature because it causes the strongest intermolecular force, hydrogen bonding to occur.
This is supported if we take three compounds of similar molar mass, propane, ethanol and ethanol and compare their boiling temperature. More relevant background information required. From these values, we see that the effect on the boiling temperature of adding a carbonyl or hydroxyl group is very large. PE: Evidence of curiosity arising out of their classroom learning. Will we see the melting and boiling points of the aldehydes, ketones and alcohols converge on those of the alkanes and if so at what chain length does the effect of a carbonyl or hydroxyl group become insignificant?
When looking at the effects of carbonyl or hydroxyl group one other possible influencing factor is the position on the chain of the carbonyl or hydroxyl group.
I can imagine that a functional group. PE: Independent thinking about the research question. Very clearly presented and clarifiedresearch questions. The topic of the investigation is identified and a relevant and fully focused research question is clearly described. The dependent variables in this investigation are the melting and boiling points of the compounds in the homologous series: alkanes, aldehydes, 2-ketones, 3-ketones, 1-alcohols, 2-alcohols and 3- alcohols.
The independent variables are the molar mass of the compound and the identity and position of the functional group. A control variable is that I will only look at compounds with linear hydrocarbon chains so there will be no added effect from branching.
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When assessing the effect of the identity and position of the functional group I will be graphing the melting and boiling temperatures against the Molar Mass of the compound. This investigation will use data available from two databases. The RSC Chemspider online chemical database iii.
EX: There are other databases available through the web but this was sufficient to address the research question. The predicted data was only to be used where an experimentally determined value was not available in the CRC Handbook or the Chemspider website. Good consideration regarding reliability of data.
Also once I was able to find a compound e. In Chemspider I had to make a separate formula search for each one which was much slower. C: No use of compound names and a lot of empty cells do make the data tables a little hard to follow. However they bring together a large amount of data quite concisely better than multiple tables for each homologous series and there is a logic to their construction with the data organised according to ascending Mr.
Uncertainty in Raw Data. The experimental data were cited with varying precision ranging from zero to three decimal places. Also the melting temperature was sometimes cited as a range. Where a range was given I have chosen the midpoint and have rounded off to the nearest integer value. Again described methodology regarding uncertainty of data. The data sources were evaluated by looking at some example compounds where experimentally determined data is available as well a prediction given.
Once again methodology is evaluating reliability of data. Looking at Table 3 it is clear that there is usually good agreement between the CRC Handbook and Chemspider experimentally sources.International Baccalaureate IB. IB Chemistry may not be quite as easy as this penguin makes it seems.
Because of the COVID coronavirus pandemic, all IB exams for May have been canceled and coursework deadlines have been extended for schools that have closed. Yep — that definitely includes the IB Chem exam, too! If you are looking for summary material to help you study for the IB Chemistry papers, check out the Overall Reviews section for great overall study resources.
I've listed the notes and guides by topic. You should glance at this article during the school year to help you study for in-class tests and quizzes if you need more assistance or if you struggled to understand certain lectures in your IB Chemistry course. If you want additional help, read our article on the best IB Chemistry books to find additional study resources. You should be learning the material over the course of the school year and not cramming right before the IB Chemistry papers.
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There are so many subjects to learn, and you cannot fall behind. You need to be learning during the school year in order to ace the IB Chemistry papers. If you did not learn it in the classroom, you need to seek additional assistance whether through this IB Chemistry study guide, IB Chemistry booksor through tutoring.O2 movies tv series
There are way too many topics to master in only a week or two which is why the course is taught over one to two years. So, master the subjects as you learn them in class. Use this study guide if you need more help comprehending the topics you cover in class. Otherwise, you will be as nervous as this kid during the test.
They consist of 95 hours and cover the 11 topics listed below. You will only study the ten topics listed below if you're in IB Chemistry HL; the standard level doesn't cover these topics. Unfortunately, there are no free online study guides for the options, but look at our article on IB Chemistry books to find books that review the options topics. IB Chemistry Web: This site goes over the syllabus in-depth and explains key definitions and facts you need to know.IB Chemistry Option D (2014 Syllabus): Aspirin & Opiates
Want more of a review of what you'll learn in IB Chemistry? A prep book can be an extremely useful study tool. Learn which are the best IB Chemistry textbooks by reading our guide.Post a Comment. Stereoisomers are compounds with the same molecular and structural formula, but a different arrangement of atoms in space.
Geometric isomers are a type of stereoisomers. In general, geometric isomers occur in species with a bond with restricted rotation.Show password mikrotik
However, in some geometric isomers, when there are different atoms bonded to the same molecule, like in cisplatin, the phenomenon may occur.
The trans- and the cis- form of a drug can exhibit different properties. One geometric isomer may have the desired pharmacological effect, while the other may be less effective or have adverse side effects.
Example: Cisplatin is a drug used to treat testicular and ovarian cancer. The medicine exhibits geometric isomerism. However, only the cis- form of the drug is effective—the trans- form has no effects whatsoever. Only cisplatin can react with two guanine molecules in the DNA. Remember that cisplatin is square planar! Optical isomers are stereoisomers chiral, or asymmetric, around one of the atoms.
Body is a very precise machine, so the chemicals inside often exist as one of the enantiomers. Only one enantiomer of drugs exhibiting optical isomerism sometimes has the desired pharmacologic effect. The other enantiomer may have weaker effect or severe adverse side effects. The pharmaceutical companies are likely to manufacture only the desired enantiomer because producing the ineffective enantiomer is financially inefficient, or to avoid the adverse effects of the harmful enantiomer.
The atom around which a molecule is chiral has four different atoms attached to it! Do not confuse optical isomerism with geo-isomerism! Example: Thalidomide — one enantiomer alleviates symptoms of the pregnancy morning sickness, the other enantiomer causes deformities in the limbs of fetus.
Ibuprofen - one enantiomer is effective, while the other is not. Naproxen — one enantiomer is a pain reliever, the other one is a liver toxin. Other examples include amphetamine and taxol. Due to its irregularity, the beta lactam ring is very reactive.You are commenting using your WordPress.
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I set up this site to help my own revision, as well as yours.
Bear with me as I'm still in the midst of uploading and updating. These notes have been compiled by myself from my textbooks, online resources, and from kind friends that have been so helpful as to send me their notes to upload :.Catalase ppt
IB Revision. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public.
Name required. These notes have been compiled by myself from my textbooks, online resources, and from kind friends that have been so helpful as to send me their notes to upload : Happy revising! Tempus Fugit. Follow Blog via Email Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
In my case, I tried to further my own understanding by looking at the maths behind some of the topics in the course and have written some of the expressions I have played around with to prove concepts in these sets of notes.
I personally did not do this, choosing to focus on grasping the underlying intuition within concepts instead — this approach worked well for me. Like Like. I used my textbook as well as a number of online resources. A lot of the proofs you find in my notes started off as expressions I was playing around with just to try and understand some concepts on a mathematical level.
I just wanted to say that you are an absolute legend and life saver, and that me not failing the ib will be dedicated to you. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Have fun! Share this: Twitter Facebook.
Like this: Like Loading Hi there, I used my textbook as well as a number of online resources. I just wanted to say that you are an absolute legend and life saver, and that me not failing the ib will be dedicated to you Like Like.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public. Name required. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use.
Nevertheless, I sincerely hope that you find it a useful guideline during your IA process. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.
You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Include preliminary trials something that I would like to have included in mine but failed to.
Make adaptations to personalise the methodology. While I am not sure about other schools, my teacher enjoyed the fact that I had changed a pre-existing methodology and made it my own. I think this helps with the personal engagement section which several of my classmates lost one of two marks in. Process the raw result. Have a treated result involving a degree of calculations to obtain another value.
For example, my IA obtained a Current Amps value as raw data and processed this value to calculate conductivity. This ensures that marks for calculations and data score higher. Include 6 weaknesses and 4 strengths in the evaluation section. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:.
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